Earthworms are invertebrates from the taxonomic group Annelida. Earthworms live within the soil beneath the turf surface feeding on organic matter. Earthworms range in size from 5 to 25 cm and their numbers vary in soils from 30 to 300 per m2. The tunnelling and worm castings due to work activity are important in maintaining soil structure (Pattison, 2006). However, not when the castings are left on top of the turf surface.
Earthworms do not damage the turfgrass foliage or roots, but the surface itself from earthworm castings. The castings provide an unaesthetic and more importantly disturbed turf surface. Such disturbance is problematic for lawn sports such as golf and bowls in particular. Castings are more prolific in cooler, wet conditions, where the soil has a higher silt and clay content and air within the rootzone is low.
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